This is a point he makes in the following discourse, which is apparently his response to a particular school of Brahmanical thought that was developing in his time — the Samkhya , or classification school. This school had its beginnings in the thought of Uddalaka, a ninth-century B. Philosophers who carried on this line of thinking, offered a variety of theories, based on logic and meditative experience, about the nature of the ultimate root and about the hierarchy of the emanation. Many of their theories were recorded in the Upanishads and eventually developed into the classical Samkhya system around the time of the Buddha. And, in fact, the list of topics he covers reads like a Buddhist Samkhya.
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Numata Yehan, a Japanese industrialist, finding the ubiquitous Gideon Bible in Hotel rooms throughout the west, decided that the great spiritual teachings of the Buddha deserved a fitting place in eastern hotels.
Such was the origin of the wonderful compilation of Mahayana wisdom, entitled the Teachings of the Buddha. This book has often acted as a substantive introduction and guide to some of the principle values of East Asian Buddhists. The BDK was the foundation set up to keep this primer before the public. Retiring and growing in devoutness Mr. Numata decided arrange for the establishment of a foundation to promote the English translations of Chinese and Japanese Buddhist scriptures that are vast libraries of knowledge.
Numata states in the initial volumes of the series. Yet no one has ever attempted to translate the entire Buddhist canon into English throughout the history of Japan. I have, therefore, had one hundred thirty-nine of the scriptural texts in the prodigious Taisho edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon selected for inclusion in the First Series of this translation project.
The BDK English Tripitaka has gotten off to a show start but the translations are definitely well wrought though lacking in extensive notes and other critical apparatus which may edify the scholar but tends to confuse, distract and even intimidate more general readers. This edition is acknowledged to be the most complete Tripitaka of the Northern tradition of Buddhism ever published in the Chinese and Japanese languages. It is from this edition that the scriptures for translations are selected.
The series number on the spine and title page of each volume correspond to the number assigned to the work by the Translation Committee of the BDK English Tripitaka in Tokyo. A list of the volume numbers is appended at the end of each volume; for the convenience of scholars who may wish to turn to the original texts, Taisho page and column numbers are provided in the left-hand margins of each volume.
No attempt is made to standardize the English translations of Buddhist technical terms; these are left to the discretion of the individual translators. We hope to include summaries of the contents for each published volume we are allowed to inspect. The influence of having readable translations of many Buddhist scriptures should help extend the dharma in the west in ways that will keep the various ethnic and indigenous developments in Buddhist practice and doctrine close to the vast spirit of the tradition in its still rarely fathomed plenitude.
Keenan, this fourth-century "Compendium of the Mahayana" attempts to systematize Buddhist thought into a unified whole from the standpoint of the Yogacara "Consciousness Only" School.
Yogacara, together with Madhyamika, laid the foundation for subsequent Mahayana thinking. This text is a precis of Yogacara philosophy on conscious interiority. Asanga ca. His work comes between earlier texts such as the Scripture on the Explication of Underlying Meaning T. Chapter I launches into the program with a lengthy discourse on the structure of conscious interiority. It was evidently a felt need at the time of Asanga to go beyond logical attempts to deconstruct the illusion of essentialist thinking Abhidharma to an explication of the inner dynamic that results in both illusion and its reversal to wisdom.
Consciousness is then presented not as a single inner knower looking out at external things but rather as a constant interplay between the latent container consciousness, with all the defiled seeds of past action, and the manifested, active consciousnesses of thinking, perceiving, and sensing, which bring to maturation those seeds and in turn plant new karmic seeds in the container consciousness-in an ongoing chicken-and-egg fashion for the duration of transmigration.
Dependent co-arising denotes not only the interrelationships between things but also the structure of the mind itself, functioning as a synergy of these two levels of consciousness. Chapter II moves to a discussion of the three patterns in which consciousness functions. The most basic is the other-dependent pattern, which, in a word, is the above structure of consciousness as co-arising in an interplay between the container and the active consciousnesses and in the interplay between image and insight in thinking.
The imagined pattern is the failure to understand this basic structure and the consequent clinging to things as if they had enduring essences. Frozen at the presentation of images as essences, one mistakenly affirms the reality of things that are in their very being empty and nonexistent.
Chapter III treats the theme of conscious construction only, the hallmark of Yogacara. It is presented not as a subjective idealism, as has at times been thought, but as a rejection of the normative value of the subject-object polarity.
Asanga reaffirms emptiness in teaching that in non-imaginative wisdom even the theory of conscious construction only falls by the wayside, for it is only a conceptional and language-formed explanation and not itself insight into suchness. Chapter X turns to a treatment of wisdom as the three bodies of the Buddha, focusing in the main on the Dharma body so as to emphasize that this ultimate body is not a supernal essence floating off in some spiritual vacuum but is itself synonymous with emptiness as a non-imaginative awareness of suchness.
The other two bodies, Enjoyment and Transformation, are also drawn into this context, and Asanga insists that all Buddhas, whether seen in meditations in their pure lands or perceived as historical figures, are embodiments of emptiness and not objects to be clung to in mistaken devotion. The present English translation is taken from the Chinese translation of Paramartha made in These added passages figure prominently in Chinese thinking on Yogacdra and on the Buddha nature. Many passages yield their full meaning only when read in conjunction with these commentaries.
Its Chinese is difficult and the English translation of it below is at times interpretive. Institut Orien taliste, University de Louvain.
This French translation, which is based on the Tibetan text, is the standard work on the Summary. It is meant to focus on the theme of Chapter X and to highlight the differences in translation in the commentarial literature. It is a well-researched and readable book. E, sent emissaries throughout his kingdom to spread Buddhism and unified India for the first time. In the Chinese Tripitaka there are two texts giving legendary accounts of the life of King Asoka reigned ca. He was the grandson of Candragupta, the founder of the Maurya dynasty B.
Although the exact date of the original text is unascertainable, it may be said that it was composed no earlier than B. In this work the last king of the Maurya dynasty is given as Pusyamitra, but according to Brahmanical accounts Pusyamitra was the name of a general of King Brhaddhanus, the last monarch of that dynasty. This general Pusyamitra is said to have killed the king, usurped the throne, and founded the Sunga dynasty in B.
Besides recounting the major events in the life of King Asoka, this work devotes half of its space to stories concerning the six patriarchs who succeeded the Buddha in transmitting the Dharma: Mahakasyapa, Ananda, Madhyantika, Sanakavasin, Upagupta, and Dhitika.
It also includes some other stories for the elucidation of the Dharma. Dhitika unknown to Southern Buddhism and may be looked upon as a hint of the Mahayanist tendency of this work; this hint is enhanced by a sort of short dharani incantation in Chinese transliteration in Chapter VIII which has been restored to the nearest possible romanized.
Samghapala C. In the course of the subsequent seventeen years, he translated eleven Buddhist texts into Chinese, making a total of forty-eight fascicles, including the A yu-wang jing and the Vimuktimarga, with the assistance of Chinese Buddhist monks and lay scholars under imperial patronage.
In the fifth year of Pu-tong C. It is a work of great literary merit and has earned a lasting place in the history of Buddhism. This translation of The Lotus Sutra was made from the Chinese version by Kumdrajiva entitled Miao-fa-lien-hua-ching in seven fascicles. We have tried to make our translation as readable as possible without straying from the original meaning. In order to attain the utmost wisdom," has no corresponding reading in any extant Sanskrit manuscript.
It is found neither in the Tibetan canon nor in the Chinese version translated from the Sanskrit by Dharmaraksa in The most reliable edition, printed in , is now kept at the temple of Toshodai ji in Nara. We are pleased to say that this text was published in facsimile under the editorship of Dr.
Kabutogi Tokyo: The Reiyukai, In many cases, however, we have not necessarily followed the traditional Sino-Japanese interpretation. In this connection we have consulted the Sanskrit and, on rare occasions, the Tibetan versions. Of the former, the so-called Central Asian recension, and in particular the Kashgar Manuscript, is of great importance.
This manuscript was no doubt copied in the oasis town of ancient Khotan, but it is generally called the Kashgar Manuscript because the majority of the manuscript was obtained there in , by N. Petrovsky, the Imperial Russian consul of the time. The manuscript is now scattered in a number of places throughout the world, and unfortunately has not been kept intact. Some folios are missing or damaged.
Nevertheless, the available portions have been almost completely reproduced in facsimile under the editorship of Professor Lokesh Chandra of the International Academy of Indian Culture in New Delhi ; reprinted by the Reiyukai in In such cases we have gladly adopted the version from the Central Asian recension, since some of the readings in Chinese have puzzled us for a long time.
Within the Buddhist canon, the Lotus Sutra is one text which should be read as a whole. We recommend reading the text from the beginning and continuing chapter by chapter so that this magnificent drama can be fully grasped as it unfolds. In this sense, Chapter I can be seen as a dramatic prelude; while the well-known parables which emerge during the course of the sutra serve to clarify and enliven the entire narrative.
As its title indicates, the Updsakasda-sutra comprehensively elucidates the content, practice, and essence of the moral code to be observed by lay bodhisattvas. It emphasizes the importance of the bodhisattva practice of lay Buddhists. The aspiration of the laity for enlightenment is said to be superior to the fruition of the practice of both sravakas and pratyekabuddhas.
At the end of each chapter, the sutra concludes that lay bodhisattvas encounter more difficulties in following the precepts than ordained bodhisattvas. As such, their observance of the precepts is highly praised in the sutra. This chapter enumerates six major and twenty-eight minor precepts that are different from the other two main categories of bodhisattva precepts.
The Yogacara tradition has four major and forty-three minor bodhisattva precepts, and the Brahmajala tradition has ten major and forty-eight minor bodhisattva precepts. There are twenty-eight chapters in this sutra. The key points of each chapter can be summarized as follows: Chapter I: On the Assembly.
The meaning and significance of the aspiration for enlightenment are detailed in this chapter. Chapter IV: On Liberation. This chapter outlines various ways to reach liberation. The cultivation of compassion is said to be the root of liberation. Through it we see how the enlightenment of the Buddha is exalted. This chapter emphasizes the importance of vows as the foundation of bodhisattva practice and names those vows that a bodhisattva should make in order to fortify his resolve for enlightenment.
This chapter tells how a true bodhisattva fortifies his practice in the face of difficulties. This chapter states the eight kinds of wisdom and sixteen qualities with which a bodhisattva should be equipped in order to benefit himself and others. This chapter sets forth the eight ways of cultivation with which one adorns oneself and others.
The two adornments of blessing and wisdom achieved through the practice of the six paramitas are elucidated in this chapter. This chapter explains how to teach ordained and lay Buddhist followers.
This chapter expounds the rites of taking the upasaka precepts and enumerates and expounds the six major and twenty-eight minor precepts.
Various ways to purify the precepts are explained in this chapter. How the mindfulness of the Buddha eliminates evils is explained in this chapter. This chapter explains the meaning of making offerings to the Three Treasures and lays down the means of doing so.
ත්රිපිටකය ලබා ගන්න
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