His The Dual Mandate, first published in , became a handbook for all British administrators in tropical Africa, and influenced British colonial policies across the continent. It offered a comprehensive evaluation of the nature and challenges of British rule in Africa. To shield British spheres of influence from external intrusion, the British Foreign Office declared them as Protectorates. Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies.

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Lugard, born January 22, , Fort St. His name is especially associated with Nigeria , where he served as high commissioner —06 and governor and governor-general — He was knighted in and raised to the peerage in Posted to India and swept into the British imperial advance of the s, he served in the Afghan, Suakin Sudan , and Burma Myanmar campaigns.

An officer with a promising career ahead of him in British India, he experienced a catastrophic love affair with a married woman. His next enterprise was under the imperial British East Africa Company , one of the chartered companies that preceded imperial annexation in Africa.

Leaving Mombasa in August , he led a caravan for five months along an almost untrodden route of miles 1, km to the advanced kingdom of Buganda. Here he found a complex struggle going on among animists, Muslims, Protestants, and Roman Catholics—the latter two groups converted by British and French missionaries who had reached Buganda earlier by a southern route—and the nominal king, or kabaka. Within 18 months—not without a brief use of his one operative Maxim gun—Lugard imposed peace, carried out an immense march to the west, and won a treaty of allegiance from the kabaka.

Hearing that his company meant to abandon Uganda because of mounting expenses, he hurriedly returned to England to fight a successful two-pronged campaign to defend, first, the retention of Uganda in addition to imperial annexation and, second, his own reputation against accusations of harshness and injustice.

In —95 Lugard accepted another dangerous mission, this time for the Royal Niger Company , to race the French in a treaty-making exploration on the Middle Niger. He succeeded in that enterprise in spite of great hardships—including a poisoned arrow in his head.

From the Niger he went, again at some risk to his life, to the semidesert of the Bechuanaland Protectorate for the private British West Charterland Company, which was prospecting for diamonds. There he was tracked down by a runner sent by the colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain , to offer him his first official government appointment. He was to create a British-officered African regiment that he was to employ in a second attempt to fend off the French, who then were competing with the British right across Africa from the Niger to the Nile.

This was to become the famous West African Frontier Force. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Most of this vast region of , square miles , square km was still unoccupied and even unexplored by Europeans. In the south were pagan tribes and in the north, historic Muslim city-states with large walled cities whose emirs raided the tribal territories to the south for slaves. In three years, by diplomacy or the swift use of his small force, Lugard established British control, though in hastening to take the major states of Kano and Sokoto he forced the hands of his more cautious home government.

Only two serious local revolts marred the widespread acceptance and cooperation that Lugard obtained. His policy was to support the native states and chieftainships, their laws and their courts, forbidding slave raiding and cruel punishments and exercising control centrally through the native rulers.

This system, cooperative in spirit and economical in staff and expense, he elaborated on in his detailed political memorandums. It greatly influenced British administration in Africa and beyond. Though sometimes misapplied or overprolonged, it helped bridge the gap between tribal systems and the new movements toward democracy and unity. In Lugard married Flora Shaw, a beautiful and famous woman, herself a great traveler, an authority upon colonial policy, and a member of the staff of The Times of London.

A very deep devotion and partnership grew up between them. Because she could not stand the Nigerian climate, Lugard felt obliged to leave Africa and to accept the governorship of Hong Kong , which he held from to No greater contrast could be imagined than that between the vast untamed expanse of Northern Nigeria and the small island of Hong Kong with its highly civilized Chinese and sophisticated commercial British community.

But the bushwhacker from Africa achieved a surprising degree of success and, on his own initiative , founded the University of Hong Kong. He could not, however, resist the great opportunity offered to him in to unite the two parts of Nigeria into one vast state. The south and north showed wide contrasts in their original character and in their traditions of British rule. It was an immense task to unify their administration. Lugard did not attempt a complete fusion of their systems and retained a degree of dualism between south and north.

He found the south, especially the sophisticated Africans of Lagos and the southeast, less easy to understand than the northerners, and in he had to deal with a serious outbreak in the important city-state of Abeokuta. Nor did he find it easy to extend the principles of indirect rule to the loosely organized societies of the Igbo Ibo and other southeastern tribes. His tenure of office also was made more difficult by World War I , with its interruption of communications, its resultant shortages of staff, and the war with the Germans in the Cameroons along his eastern frontier.

Yet, in the main, Lugard carried through an immense task of unification, which was officially declared on January 1, Historians must judge the event by the decision of the Nigerians to obtain their independence in as a united state and to defend it against the attempted Igbo secession to set up an independent state, Biafra, in the late s. In he retired, but only to a life of unceasing activity in his role as the leading authority on colonial government.

In he became Baron Lugard of Abinger and spoke with authority in the House of Lords on colonial subjects. To the end of his life, deeply saddened by the death of his wife in , he worked almost incessantly in his secluded house on a survey of matters affecting the interests of native races both inside and outside the British Empire.

Though to modern critics of colonialism there may seem much to criticize in his ideas and actions, there can be no questioning the great range and effectiveness of the three periods of his work: in the opening up of Africa; in its government at a most formative stage in its history; and as elder statesman working during his so-called retirement almost up to his death.


Frederick Lugard

President of the Regional Council For example, an elected official cannot be mayor and President of the Regional Council. However, all other local mandates are cumulative. A mayor can also be a general councillor and a president of a Regional Council can also be deputy-mayor of a city. However, he may retain any local mandate he or she holds. A cabinet minister can exercise a maximum of two local mandates in addition to his or her government function. For example, the Prime Minister, a Minister or Secretary of State can be mayor , or President of a general, regional or intercommunal council or sit in one of these assemblies. Currently, over two-thirds of the members of the French government are engaged in one or two more local mandates.

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The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, by Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (1965)

Lugard, born January 22, , Fort St. His name is especially associated with Nigeria , where he served as high commissioner —06 and governor and governor-general — He was knighted in and raised to the peerage in Posted to India and swept into the British imperial advance of the s, he served in the Afghan, Suakin Sudan , and Burma Myanmar campaigns.


Dual Mandate, Africa

In his most important work on British imperialism, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa , Lugard craftily articulated the basis for European imperial design in Africa and the dynamics of the colonial administrative system of indirect rule. It was a concept in which existing African traditional political institutions were preserved and incorporated into the colonial administrative system for local governance. Under this system, local administrative powers resided in the native authority made up of traditional rulers or chiefs with jurisdiction over a native treasury and native courts. Lugard believed that, at the grassroots, traditional authority would constitute an effective instrument in enforcing colonial policies, administrating justice in local disputes, maintaining law and order, and collecting taxes. The efficacy of indirect rule thus necessarily rested on the existence of powerful chiefs capable of exercising political authority over their jurisdictions.

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