The development of analogical reason and the scope and boundaries by which it may be used is recognized by the majority of Muslim jurists, but its establishment as a legal tool is the result of the Hanafi school. While it was likely used by some of his teachers, Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt and institute analogical reason as a part of Islamic law. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. This is based on reports that he met at least four Sahaba including Anas ibn Malik , [8] with some even reporting that he transmitted Hadith from him and other companions of Muhammad.

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Note that it talks about knowing. Yes, we gave the Covenant to Allah the Exalted, but what we know by Fitra will not be enough to get us through our lives. This is especially true today, when the nature of human beings has turned for the worse, and they have been extremely deluded by Shaytan.

Yes, we may gain intellectual certainty and eliminate our doubts, but the final purpose is more exalted than mere academics. Thus, intellectual pleasure is overridden by spiritual sensual pleasure. But after his death, then these matters arose. We would say that even if I am asking from a normal Person-X who asks from the Infallible, there is still a chance of some loss of information, since perhaps Person-X made some mistake in his hearing.

Besides, this is the basis for Fiqh placing Mutawwatir narrations above Ahaad ones, since the chance for loss of information is eliminated when multitudes of people narrate the same thing. Thus, even when the Infallible is the direct source and his knowledge is supernaturally received, the medium of transmitting this information is normal, and its reliability does not become supernaturally precluded from error.

Not only this, but they also have basically the same framework of classification which we have that is, Ahaad narrations, Mash-hor narrations, and so forth. We have to ask ourselves, why do we have this? Because it is a method to approximate the truth about what was said by the Infallible when one cannot directly ascertain this matter personally, and to say that if there is a contradiction that cannot be resolved then that which is Mash-hor or Mutawatir is above that which is Ahaad.

If the Shias were true in what they are saying in this respect that their Imams guide them , then all of these methods would not be needed, since they would have certain knowledge about every matter of the religion. After all, having the Infallible guide means having certain knowledge concerning all matters belief and practical.

If they cannot have this certain knowledge about everything, then it is as if the Infallible did not exist amongst them. The obvious practical example is that of the Qibla for prayer: If we Sunnis are in doubt concerning this, then we make the best Ijtihad that we can and pray to the best of our ability. Other Shia groups quickly fizzled out or became much reduced in number, since they were openly fighting the Sunnis and their Imams were dying everywhere… even in the case of the Fatimids, eventually they became split up as well Why?

One of things to take out from this is that new things can be developed as the situation warrants. As an analogy, consider the case for Arabic grammar and morphology: Every Arab knew it latently, but when the dominions of Islam grew and non-Arabs had to be taught Arabic systematically, it became necessary to write down the rules of Arabic formally. The most obvious reason is that as new people entered Islam far away from the spiritual home of the Companions, they may not have been able to fully rid themselves of their pre-Islamic ideas, and these were baselessly grafted onto their new belief.

Someone may ask that well, do we not believe that the second generation is the second best? Indeed we do, but this shows 1 how delicate the matter of governorship is in Islam and 2 that the Muslim Ummah has been getting into deeper and deeper problems in terms of holding on to the correct Aqeedah as time passes on.

But note that there were indeed those scholars who did stand up for the true position. So it cannot be said that due to the coercion of the rulers, the true beliefs were lost or had to be transmitted underground as what the Shias and other Batini groups say with respect to their beliefs. Yes, some people may have been cowed into submission, but as a whole the knowledge would still pass down uninterrupted throughout the Muslim Ummah.

How come it is exaggeration? We say that the only thing which is intrinsically necessary for any being to exist in a certain dimension is that it be defined by the minimal parameters required for existence in that dimension for example, to exist as a being in the Universe, we require to have length, width, time parameter, etc.

Why not give them a choice? Tafwidh is obviously a safe course since it means to say only that which the primary texts say and no more. Nay, this is a type of Tashbih. Anyway, they say that Allah has haqiqatan settled on the throne but not necessarily as the average human may understand. Their claim is that Allah sees, wills, and knows through His Essence, not through the attributes of knowledge, will, and sight. But the other explanation is that even though this hypostatization of evil is not really founded, evil and good is a term we give in language to certain actions and how these actions interplay with other beings or with ourselves.

It is interesting that the Twelver Shia hold this same Khariji-like mindset with respect to those Sahabah who in their view committed bigger evil deeds- that is, they are in Hellfire according to them.

But the Karramiya buffoons said material things exist in the essence of Allah, by this saying that Allah is a locus for created things i. This is why we had someone like Muhammad Asad claiming that Jinn are bacteria. But this should be a non-issue, since matters of belief are certain and in some cases not necessarily narrational- this is unlike matters of Fiqh, which have probabilistic elements in them, and therefore Taqlid is necessary , and if we were to say that Imam Abu Hanifah RA did not write al-Fiqh al-Akbar, it would not change the fact that what is contained within it is true.

Yes, we know there are those who wish to say that Abu Hanifah RA was in fact a member of their erroneous sect, but we say that even if we hypothetically entertain such a possibility, the truth remains as it is without any change. If someone says no, he is of the generation following that, then there is still no problem, since they are one of the three foremost generations.

But the issue is that there is a difference between transmitting Ahadith and transmitting legal rulings. It is possible for a Faqih to transmit his rulings without telling his students which Hadith he is using for his rulings.

In such a case the students cannot say that they have heard Ahadith, since these are concealed beneath the rulings being disseminated. He also says that it refers to differences in the fundamentals of the religion, since this is what the claims and counterclaims of disbelief are based upon. But if we talk about extreme going into it, then it is possible that certain stumbling may come along, especially since rationality may be given a greater role than it should. As al-Ghazzali RA says that kalam may reveal, clarify, and define certain aspects, but this is rare.

Also, in the narration about Juwayni on his deathbed, what is the meaning we should take from this? The faith of most persons is characterized by al-zann al-ghalib, which is a preponderant opinion which does not allow for an antithesis.

But others, such as Allamah Bazdawi, say that a believer cannot leave off confession of the tongue without an excuse. Consider that with Allah such a thing is not possible, since Allah is not a Jawhar as we have mentioned previously. Also the other way is not acceptable, since it would mean that Allah needs a Jawhar in order to exist, and this is also disbelief.

This is why Allah is attributed with them]. Powerlessness is a sign of being originated and of being possible, for it points the defect of being in need of something. Because they are originated and change, and can be separated from the being itself, while this is not true concerning Allah the Exalted.

This is in contrast to the Attributes of Allah the Exalted, which cannot change, and they are not originated. But this case neglects the fact that Attributes are qualities, not essences.

It also overlooks the fact that we Sunnis say that the Attributes of Allah are not other than His Essence, so we are indeed affirming the distinction between Allah and the created beings. Note that they are qualities, not essences. We cannot say that only material substances have traits and characteristics, while Allah the Exalted has no traits and characteristics.

We can say that they are totally different from what we can imagine, but we cannot deny them outright. An attribute is that which indicates the quality or characteristic that is associated with the essence, or the qualities and characteristics it possesses.

Both schools say that the first is eternal and the last two are created. But MAturidis consider all attributes related to takwin as real sifaat, so they are eternal. Since Maturidis also consider the associations to be created, the difference is largely one of terminology and is not a technical difference.

Also for oaths, only taking an oath on the essential attributes is allowed. For making an imperfect analogy with the creation, consider the thought which comes to the mind before its articulation in words and letters. However, they are not the Kalam Nafsi referred to as an eternal attribute of Allah, but a speech He created to indicate His Eternal Speech. In here the wahy divine revelation is mentioned, and this includes dreams, such as to the prophets, or by divine inspiration ilham , as happens to the Awliya of Allah.

Imam al-Ghazalli said that wahy is when knowledge is gained by a Prophet witnessing the angel that is conveying the knowledge. Rather they say that what is needed is His Ijad originating and Takwin bringing into being. Thus, it is possible that our will not come to pass. But of course, with Allah, whatever He Wills always comes to be.

So, as has been said before, this is only a coincidence in the word, while the nature of what is being talked about is completely different. Others say that one can mention these details, in a manner appropriate for Him this is important especially when confronting the innovators and disbelievers who adamantly insist that Allah does not create evil, and that evil literally originates from the human being, and that the human is the creator of it.

Thus, evil is from the will and displeasure of Allah, while good is from the will, love, and good pleasure of Allah. The difference between active and essential is that the essential attributes are always manifest, while the active attributes remain hidden until there is creation even those these are also forever present.

So, for example, Takhliq is power in terms of its association with the Makhluq. But Maturidis say that Takwin is an eternal attribute. If it is originated but without an originator, then this is impossible. So it should be eternal.

Tarziq is not only bringing into being the sustenance of something, but also enabling that something to benefit from that sustenance. The Personal Attribute of Allah is one : Being Wujud [On which there is difference of opinion as to whether it is the same as Dhat, or if it an added description of the Dhat].

In the revealed speech, events are characterized by tense based on the connection of that event with the time of revelation. Thus, the Eternal Speech of Allah regarding the sending of Nuh Alayhi Salaam is preeternally possessed by Allah, but the change takes place in the words used to articulate the information and not in the information itself as possessed by Allah. Here we can may be able to understand something about this matter by seeing that the Knowledge possessed by Allah is pre-eternal and not subject to change, so the Speech of Allah — being related to His Knowledge- also is pre-eternal and not subject to tense and change, these last two being strictly the qualities of created words.

The originated is the tangible impression [athar] of His doing and not the doing itself. The thing done is a locus mahall for the impression of the doing to occur in- and this is obviously created. In the Second case, it refers to the Eternal Speech of Allah itself. But if the two readings retain one meaning, then Allah expressed one meaning, and allowed for the Verse to be read in more than one way. Also, the original Uthmanic script was prepared so that all seven readings could be read from it thus the primary importance of having a teacher to learn from.

The Names al-Hayy and al-Qayyum the Self-Subsistent permeate all the attributes of perfection to the utmost degree. These two names are the basis for all the other beautiful names of Allah the Exalted. His Eternal Attributes] this is said with respect to Hearing, Seeing objects which are contingent. As an imperfect example, many times we see and hear things in our dreams and then in a wakeful state, we see and hear them exactly as we saw them in the dream. Then how can one say that Allah is incapable of Hearing and Seeing things before their actual occurrence?

Such a statement shows that the bodily pleasures in Paradise pale in comparison to the theophanies kept in store for the believers in Paradise, and that likewise, the bodily punishment is nothing in comparison to the feeling of being shunned from having honor with Allah the Exalted. Thus, the ultimate heavenly enjoyments are the spiritual ones. He is without a body, substance, or accident. He has no definition hadd , no opposite, no equal, and no peer.

It is originated because if something is murakkab it means that it is composed of parts.



Even as a highschool student it was not was not difficult for me to realiie the beauty of the brevity, conciseness, and comprehensivenss of the beautiful work of Imam Abu Hanifah. Hehasbeen, unceasing, and He is, unceasing, with His names and attributes, both those relating to His Essence and those relating to His acts. As for those relating to His Essence, they are life, power, knowledge, speech, hearing, sight, and will. As for those relating to His acts, they are creativity, sustenance, originating and fashioning ex nihilo, making, and other active attributes. He has been, unceasing, and He is, unceasing, with His attributes and names; neither attribute nor name was created. He has always and unceasingly been a knower, by virtue of His knowledge, and His knowledge is a pre-eternalattribute. He has always andunceasingly been powerful, by virtue of His power, and His power is a pre-eternalattribute.


Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained

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Al-Fiqh al-Akbar


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