HYPERGOLIC PROPELLANTS PDF

End burner: propellant burns from one axial end to other producing steady long burn, though has thermal difficulties, center of gravity CG shift. C-slot: propellant with large wedge cut out of side along axial direction , producing fairly long regressive thrust, though has thermal difficulties and asymmetric CG characteristics. Moon burner: off-center circular bore produces progressive-regressive long burn, though has slight asymmetric CG characteristics Finocyl: usually a 5- or 6-legged star-like shape that can produce very level thrust, with a bit quicker burn than circular bore due to increased surface area. Casing[ edit ] The casing may be constructed from a range of materials.

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One of the main advantages of alcohol was its water content which provided cooling in larger rocket engines. Petroleum-based fuels offered more power than alcohol, but standard gasoline and kerosene left too much silt and combustion by-products that could clog engine plumbing. In addition they lacked the cooling properties of ethyl alcohol.

During the early s, the chemical industry in the US was assigned the task of formulating an improved petroleum-based rocket propellant which would not leave residue behind and also ensure that the engines would remain cool. The result was RP-1 , the specifications of which were finalized by A highly refined form of jet fuel, RP-1 burned much more cleanly than conventional petroleum fuels and also posed less of a danger to ground personnel from explosive vapors.

It became the propellant for most of the early American rockets and ballistic missiles such as the Atlas, Titan I, and Thor. The Soviets quickly adopted RP-1 for their R-7 missile, but the majority of Soviet launch vehicles ultimately used storable hypergolic propellants.

As of [update] , it is used in the first stages of many orbital launchers. Hydrogen[ edit ] Many early rocket theorists believed that hydrogen would be a marvelous propellant, since it gives the highest specific impulse.

It is also considered the cleanest when oxidized with oxygen because the only by-product is water. Hydrogen in any state is very bulky; it is typically stored as a deeply cryogenic liquid, a technique mastered in the early s as part of the hydrogen bomb development program at Los Alamos.

Liquid hydrogen is stored and transported without boil-off, because helium , which has a lower boiling point than hydrogen, acts as cooling refrigerant. Only when hydrogen is loaded on a launch vehicle, where no refrigeration exists, it vents to the atmosphere.

This extra weight reduces the mass fraction of the stage or requires extraordinary measures such as pressure stabilization of the tanks to reduce weight. Pressure stabilized tanks support most of the loads with internal pressure rather than with solid structures. This extra performance largely offsets the disadvantage of low density.

Low density of a propellant leads to larger fuel tanks. However, a small increase in specific impulse in an upper stage application can have a significant increase in payload to orbit capability.

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Hypergolic

One of the main advantages of alcohol was its water content which provided cooling in larger rocket engines. Petroleum-based fuels offered more power than alcohol, but standard gasoline and kerosene left too much silt and combustion by-products that could clog engine plumbing. In addition they lacked the cooling properties of ethyl alcohol. During the early s, the chemical industry in the US was assigned the task of formulating an improved petroleum-based rocket propellant which would not leave residue behind and also ensure that the engines would remain cool. The result was RP-1 , the specifications of which were finalized by A highly refined form of jet fuel, RP-1 burned much more cleanly than conventional petroleum fuels and also posed less of a danger to ground personnel from explosive vapors. It became the propellant for most of the early American rockets and ballistic missiles such as the Atlas, Titan I, and Thor.

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Solid-propellant rocket

History[ edit ] Soviet rocket engine researcher Valentin Glushko experimented with hypergolic fuel as early as Starting in , Prof. Lutz of the German Aeronautical Institute experimented with over self-igniting propellants. He assisted the Walter Company with the development of C-Stoff which ignited with concentrated hydrogen peroxide.

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