Secondo questa la redazione poetica sarebbe da attribuire a Fiore, mentre la redazione in prosa sarebbe un approfondimento tecnico della materia eseguito da un allievo di Fiore stesso con o senza la supervisione del maestro oppure ricavato da un autore anonimo celatosi sotto il nome del grande maestro friulano. Analisi dei testimoni manoscritti[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Esaurita la discussione sui caratteri generali del Flos, si illustreranno di seguito i tre testimoni che lo tramandano. Il manoscritto della collezione Pisani Dossi [ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Il manoscritto della collezione Pisani Dossi contiene, come detto, la redazione Flos in versione poetica. Egli afferma, senza mostrare dubbio alcuno, che il codice fu eseguito a Ferrara e che fosse da datare proprio al
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This paper will explore the man who bore the name Fiore and conduct a brief comparative analysis of the three versions of the treatise. It is evident in the Western fighting arts community, that the treatises are considered as important cornerstones in todays research and reconstruction of historical Western fighting arts.
Cividale del Friuli is the last known residence of Fiore based on the extracts from the prologues. Fiore does not reveal his birth date nor year in any version of the treatise, however, it is estimated that Fiore was born sometime around This estimated year becomes more apparent upon further examination of the text extracted from the prologue. He wrote that he had possessed a natural combative ability at a young age, having left his village of Premariacco to learn more advanced fencing techniques and to increase his skills by traveling to many provinces, training under many Italian and German masters.
He stated that he had been training and fighting for more than 40 years 8 , and given the timing when he started writing the treatise on 10 February, and the assumption that he started training and fencing at the age of 10 years, would make Fiore somewhere around sixty years of age at the time of writing the treatise. Fiore wrote that he trained under different masters in different provinces at great personal expense, implying that he was able to draw upon family resources indicating some level of financial stamina in the least, indicative of a modest noble family.
He indicated that he trained under many Masters and Scholars, as well as trained in the courts of great gentlemen, Princes, Dukes, Marquises, Counts, Knights and Squires. Other archived documents suggest that Fiore was also in Padua in and Pavia in , but further detailed examination of these instances is beyond the scope of this paper. What Fiore did write and only in the Getty and Morgan prologues, were brief accounts describing feats of arms of some of his students 13 who fought in the barriers, such as Sir Piero del Verde 14 who faced Sir Piero de la Corona 15 , both German 16 who fought in Perosa.
They continued to fight in the barriers, all occuring in Imola. Figure 1: Armorial bearings of Lanzilotto from Boecharia of Pavia first arms from the left. The second arms are those of Antonius de bocheria. They duelled with a count of three thrusts of a lance of "soft iron 25 " on horseback. Fiore continued to elaborate the duel which then continued on foot to the count of three blows of axe, three blows of sword and three blows of dagger, all in the presence of "countless" high ranking nobles including the prince and the Lord and the Lady Duchess of Milan.
No other details describing the duels were included in the prologue of either version nor any external references describing these duels have been found to date. In the Pisani-Dossi prologue, in the "alter prologus " section of the prologue, the phrase " This claim is not included in the Getty nor the Morgan prologue.
However, in the Getty and Morgan prologues, it is mentioned that Fiore was challenged to five duels, using cut and thrust weapons, wearing only an arming doublet 29 and leather gauntlets "chamois" because he did not wish to fight nor practice the Masters who challenged him. These duels occuured in locations without any supportive relations and friends, but apparently, his honour was and remained secured. Fiore writes of his students and their feats of arms, with an obvious omission of Nicolo III from the list of his students.
Perhaps Nicolo had the desire to become or at least be perceived as a master, given that Fiore states in the prologue that no man has a great enough memory to remember the complete art without the aid of such a book. Presumably, he died sometime between and The following are some specifics which will aid in the ensuing discussion. However, only in the Pisani-Dossi version, is a date explicitly stated.
Fiore wrote that he started his composition on February 10, using the modern calendar and alludes to taking approximately six months to complete. This debate continues with vigour in the historical community and further discussion or research on this particular subject is outside the scope of this paper. This is followed by five more illustrations depicting other defensive techniques, each illustration accompanied with rhyming couplets.
Paul Getty Trust. All rights reserved. The most extraordinary difference between the Pisani-Dossi and the other versions is in the structure of the text accompanying the illustrations. The text in the Pisani-Dossi is comprised of rhyming couplets see illustration 2 , which gives the impression that the purpose was to inject combative concepts into the fewest and more memorable prose to aid in recalling and remembering the great expanse of armizare.
It is the opinion of this author, which is shared by other researchers and practitioners of historical fencing, that the design of this manuscript may have served a similar purpose as mnemonics used to remember details of certain information or facts or concepts, e.
Period" which was used to remember the names and order of the nine planets now eight! A more detailed examination of the presentation of the First Remedy Master of the first play of abrazare follows. The couplet can easily be translated into physical reality by a student of the art. Yet both versions conveys a very similar concept and achieves the same instructional objective for this particular play.
One he will thrust the point, the other cuts, the other will throw his sword against the said Master. As well it is a very great fact that this Master is not dead that God made him very wily. You have wicked desires and of this art know little, you especially do things that have no place in words, come one by one who knows how to do it and even if you were one hundred I will ruin you all because of this guard that is therefore good and strong.
I accrease the foot that is forward a little out of the way, and with the left I pass to the side. And with this pass I cover beating the sword and I find you uncovered and of striking you I will be cer- tain. And of a spear or sword that is thrown at me, I will beat them all as I have said passing out of the way. As you will see in my plays that follow here after. Look at them I pray to you, and therefore with the sword of one hand I will make my art. Figure 4: Morgan - extracted from plate 17R, depicting what is commonly called "three players", often misinterpreted as the master on the right facing three opponents at the same time on the left.
Fate gli che parole non ano loco. One will throw the point thrust , the other with a cut, the other wants to throw his sword against the said Master. So that it will be a very great fact he is not dead that God makes him very sorrowful.
You have bad desires and of this art you know little. You do things that have no place in words. Come one by one who knows how to do it and even if you were one hundred I will put you all out of order because of this guard that is so good and strong. I accrease the foot that is forward a little out of the way and with the left I pass to the side traverse.
And in that pass I cross beating the sword to you I find you revealed and of wounding you I will make certain. And if a spear or sword is thrown at me, I will beat them all like I have said passing out of the way. As you will see in my plays that follow here after, I pray that you look at them.
And even with a one handed sword I will do my art as it is after in these papers. The differences between the two versions as depicted above is minimal. The language has some differences, and may be attributed to differences in the "dialect", hence the slight differences in the language. This particular play has often been misinterpreted as the master, possessing the skills of the art is able to face three fighters at the same time. The illustration and text actually reveal that the particular "posta " or guard which the master has assumed is able to defend and offend an attack from any one of the originating offensive stances.
In Conclusion Although Fiore dei Liberi was merely a footnote in the annals of history, definitely not in the same league as some of the great men of the period, however, his influence in the 21st century can be vividly seen and experienced across many historical fighting and fencing schools and academies throughout the world. The challenge of rebuilding the man who bore the name Fiore will require exhaustive research into archives, personal collections and libraries which remain untouched or inaccessible today with respect to research on the man Fiore.
Lastly, the reconstruction and practice of armizare cannot be complete without referencing and studying all three treatises. Each has certain unique qualities and attributes which contribute to fleshing out the art. At this time, there has been no formal academic study of the treatises or on Fiore deil Liberi.
Novati collection. It is assumed that the Liberi family was of modest noble standing. The Patriarchate of Aquileia located in the extreme north-east of Italy was a former city of the RomanEmpire, situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Austrian sea-coast, in the country of Goerz Goricia in Slovenia was initially formed during the Roman Empire sometime around 70AD, and which had been a force in the Christian church for centuries.
Friuli is a region located in the north-eastern portion of Italy neighbouring Slovenia, known as Furlanija Slovenian or Friaul German has as its most important city, Udine. Friuli also includes the village of Premariacco, which is located approximately 13km east of Udine. Despite the common subject across the three versions of the treatise, some differences do surface.
The going forward assumption was that Toblem was of German heritage. A fascinating piece of documentation research and retrieval by Zanutto in which records found in the Municipal Archive of Udine, VII, f.
The extent of the injury incurred, if at all, was not revealed in the account but the duel was immediately halted by the Lords and peace was made between Galeazzo and Boucicault.
Galeazzo and Bartolomeo Gatari, Cronaca carrarese, ed. Medin and Tolomei, pp. However, only some of the plates are visible in the online collection and no text describing the arms are available at least online, and therefore, qualifying this potential lead will require more effort which is outside the scope of this paper.
The arms are included for reference and interest only. Fiore mentioned in his prologue that his preference was to fight in armour because it was far more forgiving should the combatant make a mistake by virtue of the protection offered by the plate armour and stated that he would rather fight three times in armour in the barriers than a single unarmoured duel with a sharp sword.
Nicolo III, born on 9 November The provenance listed for the Morgan version is extracted from the cover information page describing the manuscript from the Pierpoint Morgan Library Dept. Of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts, and which describes the source of the provenance listed in that document from the publication by Francesco Novati, Il Cerchio. These transcriptions are more or less consistent with the many other transcriptions available online in the Internet and some minor corrections were edited into the transcriptions to improve their consistency with the original text.
Bibliography Carruthers, Mary J. Cambridge University Press. Cvet, David M. The Measure of a Master Swordsman. Journal of Western Martial Art.
Crime and Justice in Late Medieval Italy. Canbridge University Press. Easton, Mat. Fiore dei Liberi. Fior di Battaglia: MS M. Florio, John. Printed by Melch. Bradwood for Edw.
Flos duellatorum in armis, sine armis, equester et pedester