Siendo las zonas de Pisco y Callao las primeras en contar con flotillas de buzos extractores a partir de Soenens, Laguna Grande. El desembarcadero de Laguna Grande se ha convertido en una Caleta de pescadores, en donde se concentra la mayor parte de la actividad pesquera artesanal de la Reserva de Paracas. En Laguna Grande se han desarrollado dos asentamientos humanos, uno anterior y otro posterior al establecimiento de la Reserva.
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Data was taken from Tapia et al. Comparison of heavy metal mean content in whole A. Because they provide a habitat for other benthic macroinvertebrates, mussels are essential to maintain interrelatedness and persistence of associated organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Any major disturbance in their populations may thus have severe consequences in the biodiversity of these ecosystems.
In North America, for example, Zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha , which were transported from Europe to North America in the ballast water of ships in the mid-eighties, have been shown to negatively impact aquatic ecosystems by harming native organisms by outcompeting other filter feeders or by adhering to shells of native mussels, turtles, and crustaceans [ 55 ].
Another example of invasion is the introduction in the Parana basin of an even more dangerous species, Limnoperna fortunei, which has a glochidia larvae that can attach to fishes to be transported upstream [ 56 ].
It has successfully invaded numerous marine coastal lines around the globe, most notably those near important seaports where ship hull fouling and transport of ballast water are suspected to release alien mussel species [ 30 ].
A case in point is its dominance over the indigenous A. The question therefore arises as to whether climate change could exacerbate or revert the ability of an alien species such as M. One could easily envisage that extreme desiccation of rocky intertidal ecosystems, caused by strong dry winds and low rainfall, would provoke a selective pressure on these mussel-dominated beds that will impact their biodiversity.
Such effect might be irreversible since we now know that biodiversity helps protect ecosystems from extreme conditions. This could be particularly important at sites with a rich diversity, such as the Wellington Harbour, where the endemic ribbed mussel A. It is also plausible that climate change will impact the ability of mussels to escape the effects of natural control agents such as parasites.
In South Africa, for instance, it is well known that M. Because A. In contrast, conditions that would favor growth of Polychaetes may have a more detrimental effect on A. While weak infestation by Polychaetes is usually not a threat for bivalves, heavy infestation can cause serious shell damage, reduce growth, and impair reproduction. The rough surface of the valves of A. Another factor to consider is how climate change will affect the vulnerability of mussels to predators, which play a critical role in the control of the structure and diversity of local mussel beds [ 60 ].
As suggested by Griffiths and Hockey [ 61 ], because predators attack younger and smaller mussels, M. However, because A. The rock-lobster is another predator that is particularly sensitive to environmental factors such as water temperatures, strength of the Leeuwin Current, and westerly winds [ 62 , 63 ].
The scarce distribution of A. Changes in the population of Nucella cingulata, commonly found on the coast of South Africa, may also have a strong influence on the biodiversity of mixed beds with A. Economical Perspective Aquaculture is a rapidly growing economic sector that has shown a steady increase over the last 50 years [ 66 ].
Aquaculture provides half of the seafood products worldwide. Production of mussels is the third most important among bivalves, after clams and oysters, reaching approximately 1. This market is largely dominated by the blue mussels, which have a wide geographical distribution and which have been cultured by intertidal wooden poles for several centuries in Europe.
Given the extreme southern geographical distribution of A. Ater, its production is much more limited. Historically, the production of A. Its commercial potential had steadily grown since the end of s, reaching a plateau of approximately 15 to 20 tons in the seventies [ 67 ].
This method has been gradually replaced by aquaculture production. Production of A. In , the production of A. This is extremely low compared to productions of M. In South America, the production of M. In countries such as Chile, where mussel production concentrates around three distinct species, M. In , the production of M. Considering that the global market of bivalves is consistently increasing, reaching Like other mussels, A.
A gland in the foot of byssus-forming mussels produces adhesive polyphenolic proteins rich in dopa, lysine, and other hydroxylated amino acids. These proteins, which have low immunogenicity and are nontoxic, biodegradable, and nonpolluting, have been considered as potentially attractive for coating different types of surfaces for biotechnological usage, including immobilization of antigens on solid support for ELISA testing [ 71 ].
Compared to other mussels species, A. Protocols aimed at optimizing large scale production of these biological adhesive for their industrial usage have recently been developed and may accelerate the use of such bioinspired proteins in various biomedical and tissue engineering fields [ 73 , 74 ]. Perspectives Compared to A.
In contrast, A. This is largely due to several factors, including the fact that its geographical distribution is restricted to the Southern hemispheres and that its growth rate is slower than that of the blue mussel.
For scientists, the wide distribution of blue mussels also makes it a very useful tool for monitoring the effect of environmental stress on marine ecosystems on a global scale. It is clear, however, that more attention needs to be paid to A. Its progressive disappearance from the coast of South Africa is an indication of its sensitivity to the dominance by the blue mussels.
Given its limited geographic distribution, one could wonder whether such dominance by the blue mussel may severely compromise the existence of A. Whether climate change and pollution will exacerbate this trend is a question that deserves attention. Because of their distinctive anatomy and physiology, it is logical to believe that both species will respond differently to climate change and exposure to pollutants.
Our recent comparative study between A. Monitoring of mixed beds containing A. In fact, a better knowledge of A. Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Acknowledgments The authors thank Dr. Edouard F. Potworowski for a critical reading of the paper. References A. Beu and J. Castilla and R. S1, pp. View at: Google Scholar M. Ojeda and B. View at: Google Scholar J. View at: Google Scholar C. Van Erkom Schurink and C. View at: Google Scholar O.
Troncoso, F. Torres, and C. Land and D. Tapia, L. Vargas-Chacoff, C. Di Salvatore, J. Calcagno, N. Birch and C. Catsiki and H. Szefer, K. Frelek, K. Szefer et al. Jaramillo and J. View at: Google Scholar P. Hockey and C. Davenport and G. Griffiths and J. Porcupine Newsletter, 5, p. Castilla and P. Branch and C.
MacHado-Schiaffino, L. Bala, and E. Jaramillo, and P. View at: Google Scholar F. Caza, S. Betoulle, M. Auffret, P. Brousseau, M.
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Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782)