Translation of Quran by Laleh Bakhtiar The Sublime Quran " We were delighted by viewing this site wherein we found a sea of knowledge copiously flowing with works of exegesis and the fundamental references and sources in this primary field of the Islamic Sciences and Heritage. Asslamu alaikum dear Brothers. As a convert of almost 10 years and living in Las Vegas, our masjead had little help for new converts so I relied on the Internet. I wanted to Thank You for such an informative as well as beautiful interface of this site! May Allah reward everyone involved.
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Tafsir bi-al-riwaya connotes tafsir using another portion of the Quran, or sayings of Muhammad, or saying of his companions. Criticism of non-riwaya method is mostly based on two grounds; for one, Muhammad has condemned those who interpret the Quran from their own point of view,  and for two, most companions of Muhammad have refrained from presenting their own ideas.
The most authoritative source of the interpretation is the Quran itself. Interpretation of the Quran employing other Quranic reference is very common because of the close interrelatedness of the verses of the Quran with one another. The Quranic verses explain and interpret one another, which leads many to believe that it has the highest level of authenticity. Many verses or words in the Quran are explained or further clarified in other verses of the Quran.
The authoritative source of method second to the Quran is Hadith, by using narratives of Muhammad to interpret the Quran. In this approach the most important external aids used are the collected oral traditions upon which Muslim scholars based Islamic history and law.
Authority of this method is considered established by the statement made in the Quran that Muhammad is responsible for explanation and guidance. Narratives used for tafsir, and in general, must be of authentic origin sahih. Narratives of such origin are considered requisite for tafsir.
These are generally considered above personal opinion, because these people grew up with everyday interaction with Muhammad, and had often asked about the meanings of verses or circumstances of their revelation; and they were very knowledgeable in both Arabic literature and Islamic thought. Another non-scripture based source of the interpretation is classical Arabic literature. Classical Arabic poetry and the text of the Quran are two resources which can be used as foundational reference in ascertaining the meaning and signification of the remaining literal and figurative diction of the Quran and its style of expression.
Scholars starting with the Sahabah have studied narrative accounts of other Abrahamic religions to further explain and clarify verses, especially parables, in the Quran. While some may be accurate, these narratives are not subject to hadith authenticity criteria, and are generally not favored for use.
The most distinctive feature of tafsir bi-al-diraya is the inclusion of the opinions of the commentator, thus forming the more objective view on Quranic verses. The relative paucity of traditional sources is also a practical reason why the scope of the methodology is augmented. This is considered sanctioned by the Quran itself,  as written in the surah Sad verse This is a Scripture that We have revealed unto thee, full of blessing, that they may ponder its revelations, and that men of understanding may reflect.
Accordingly, the method of independent reasoning ijtihad has several qualifications and conditions that need to be satisfied. Due to the nature of orientation toward opinions, this method is rejected by certain scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah ,  and prohibited by Wahhabi Islamic doctrine. Some parameters used by these scholars including linguistic resources, historical sources, methodological concepts such as maqasid or socio-cultural environment taken into consideration.
In terms of linguistic resources, literary elements of the Arabic language , including morphology , eloquence, syntax are an integral part of tafsir, as they constitute the basis of understanding and interpretation. Arabic has a systematic way of shaping words so one can know the meaning by knowing the root and the form the word was coined from. If any word can be given a meaning that is compatible with the rules of grammar, Quranic text can be interpreted that way.
In terms of historical resources, scholars may choose to interpret verses according to external factors, including their historical context and their place of revelation. Historical context Asbab al-nuzul is particularly important to interpret verses according to how the Quran was revealed, when and under which circumstances, and much commentary was dedicated to history.
The early tafsirs are considered to be some of the best sources for Islamic history. Classification of the place of revelation, whether it was revealed in Mecca or Medina , is important as well. This is because in general Meccan verses tend to have an iman loosely translated as faith nature that includes believing in Allah, Muhammad, and the day of judgment , whether it be theological foundations or basic faith principles.
On the other hand, Medinan verses constitute legislation, social obligations, and constitution of a state. On the more conceptual level, the idea of maqasid goals or purpose can be taken into account. Verses may be interpreted to preserve the general goals of shariah , which may be considered simply as bringing happiness to a person in this life and the hereafter.
That way, any interpretation that threatens to compromise the preservation of religion, life, lineage, intellect or property may be discarded or ruled otherwise in order to secure these goals. Further, the socio-cultural environment may also taken into consideration.
Scholars usually do not favor to confine verses to a single time interval, but rather interpret according to the needs of their time.
List of tafsir works
Based on the legal rulings of the Hanafi school of Islamic law. This was published in three volumes and remains popular amongst the Hanafis of India , the Middle East and Turkey. Although the author was a Maliki, he also presents the legal opinions of other major schools of Islamic jurisprudence; thus it is popular with jurists from all of the schools of Islamic law. One volume of this tafsir has been translated into English by Aisha Bewley.
Tafseer e Namoona
Al-Fatihah was called the Salah, because reciting it is a condition for the correctness of Salah - the prayer. Surah Al-Fatihah Allah knows best. We will mention this subject again soon, if Allah wills, and in Him we trust.